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KORNEA
Kornea adalah selaput bening yang letaknya dibagian terdepan bola mata dan bersifat tembus pandang. Cahaya dapat masuk dan mencapai sel-sel penerima cahaya didalam bola mata. Bagian luar kornea dilapisi air mata, sedang bagian dalamnya terdapat cairan akuos.

Kegunaan Kornea
• Kornea mempunyai kemempuan membiaskan cahaya yang paling kuat dibanding dengan sistem optik retraktif lainnya.
• Kubah kornea akan membiaskan sinar kelubang pupil didepan lensa. Kubah kornea yang semakin cembung akan memiliki daya bias yang kuat.
• Peran kornea sangat penting dalam menghantarkan cahaya masuk kedalam mata untuk menghasilkan penglihatan yang tajam, maka kornea memerlukan kejernihan, kehalusan dan kelengkungan yang tertentu.

Faktor yang menyebabkan kejernihan kornea
• Tidak mengandung zat tanduk, pembuluh darah, struktur dan susunan jaringan relatif homogen dan teratur.
• Permukaan kornea dikelilingi oleh cairan, agar mampu menahan cairan dan untuk mempertahankan kadar cairan pada tingkat tertentu maka dibagian depan kornea terdapat epitel dan dibagian belakang dilapisi endotel, yang berfungsi memompa cairan keluar kornea apabila berlebihan.

 

 

Mengapa kornea keruh?
Terganggunya faktor yang menyebabkan kejernihan tersebut, seperti tersebut diatas terganggu dapat menimbulkan kekeruhan kornea. Menurunnya tingkat kejernihan atau kekeruhan dapat bersifat sementara atau menetap atau selemanya.
Kekeruhan kornea dapat disebabkan karena kornea terluka, misalnya: karena trauma, infeksi oleh bakteri, jamur atau virus, atau terjadi reaksi penolakan tubuh atau autoimun, atau akibat kelainan bawaan yaitu terdapat penumpukan material abnormal, kerusakan endotel akibat kenaikan tekanan bola mata, bahkan komplikasi tindakan bedah.
Penurunan kejernihan kornea dapat menimbulkan gangguan penglihatan, mulai dari rasa silau sampai terjadi penurunan ketajaman penglihatan sampai kebutaan.
Sebagian penderita yang terganggu penglihatannya atau kebutaan akibat kerusakan kornea masih dapat dipulihkan kembali penglihatannya dengan tindakan pencangkokan (transplantasi) kornea, dalam istilah kedokteran disebut KERATOPLASTI.

Transplantasi Kornea
Pencangkokan kornea dilakukan dengan cara mengangkat kornea penderita yang keruh dan menggantinya dengan kornea donor yang masih jernih.

Tindakan ini dibedakan menjadi:
Pencangkokan Kornea Lameler, hanya sebagian dilapisi kornea yang diganti oleh kornea donor. Tindakan ini dilakukan apabila lapisan endotel penderita masih dapat menjalankan fungsi pompanya dengan baik.

Pencangkokan Kornea Tembus, dilakukan apabila seluruh lapisan kornea penderita diangkat dan digantikan dengan kornea donor.

Tujuan dan Indikasi dilakukan pencangkokan kornea dibagi menjadi:
• Indikasi Optik
Bertujuan untuk memulihkan kemampuan penglihatan penderita secara optimal. Biasanya dilakukan pada kerusakan kornea yang minimal dan tanpa ada penyulit tindakan.
• Indikasi Terapeutik
Dilakukan untuk menghilangkan keadaan patologik dijaringan kornea yang diperkirakan dapat merusak bola mata secara keseluruhan, misalnya karena infeksi bakteri atau jamur.
• Indikasi Tektonik
Dilakukan untuk memperbaiki struktur jaringan kornea yang mengalami penipisan dan kerusakan yang mengancam keutuhan bola mata. Keadaan ini sering disebabkan oleh infeksi maupun trauma.
• Indikasi Kosmetik
Tindakan ini dilakukan hanya untuk memulihkan kejernihan kornea, karena kemampuan penglihatan tidak dapat dipulihkan karena sistem saraf penglihatan terganggu.

Syarat calon donor:
• Kornea calon donor jernih.
• Usia tidak terlalu tua.
• Tidak menderita penyakit : Hepatitis, HIV, Tumor mata, Septikhemia, Sipilis, Glaukoma, Leukimia, serta tumor-tumor yang meyebar seperti: kanker payudara dan kamker leher rahim.
• Mata harus diambil kurang dari 6 jam setelah meninggal dunia.
• Kornea donor harus digunakan dalam waktu kurang dari 24 jam.

Syarat calon resipien:
• Letak kerusakan kornea dibagian tengah.
• Tidak ada bentukan pembuluh darah.
• Relatif dalam keadaan tenang.
• Jaringan kornea yang keruh bebas dari perlekatan dengan jaringan lain didalam bola mata.
• Tekanan bola mata normal.
• Kondisi airmata dan selaput lendir (konjungtiva) relatif normal.
Tingkat Keberhasilan
Tingkat keberhasilan tindakan teransplantasi kornea tergantung banyak faktor antara lain:
• Keadaan kornea calon donor
• Kondisi mata calon resipien
• Penyulit operasi
• Penyulit paska bedah
• Reaksi penolakan Kornea donor
• Status Retraktif

 

Informasi lebih lanjut :

Seksi Hukum dan Humas

Hp : 088802811255; PIN BB 326AE889; WhatsApp 0274-9411620

Email : Alamat e-mail ini telah dilindungi dari tindakan spam bots, Anda butuh Javascript dan diaktifkan untuk melihatnya

Yahoo Messenger : Alamat e-mail ini telah dilindungi dari tindakan spam bots, Anda butuh Javascript dan diaktifkan untuk melihatnya

Facebook : Humas Rsmyap

Twitter : @Rsmata_DrYap

 

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